Objective. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the potential risk of clinical problems encountered in the antenatal and perinatal periods for the development of ASD.
Methods. The analysis included 130 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) [77 males (75.4%), 32 females (24.6%), median age: 44 (36-53) months] and 146 healthy controls [106 males (72.6%), 40 females (27.4%), median age: 46.5(38-55). Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed through the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Criteria. Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) was used to assess the screening and diagnosis of autism. A specially prepared personal information sheet was employed to investigate sociodemographic characteristics and birth and clinical histories.
Results. We found no significant difference among the study groups regarding the terms of age, maternal age at pregnancy, gender, place of residence, level of parental education, family income level, parental consanguinity (p>0.05). Family history of ASD, nulliparity, gestational diabetes, severe infection in pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy, folic acid supplementation of first 3 months, cesarean section rates were significantly higher in the ASD group compared to the controls (p<0.05). Advanced paternal age has been associated with an increased risk of having a child with ASD. Threatened miscarriage, gestational hypertensive disorder, nutritional problems during pregnancy, excessive tea and/or coffee consumption, radiation exposure, utilization of vitamins, minerals, and other supplements during pregnancy were similar between the two groups (p>0.05).
Conclusions. It has also been detected, through the course of our study that advanced paternal age, family history of autism, nulliparity, gestational diabetes, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and history of severe infection during pregnancy were found to be associated with ASD. Neonatal convulsion and is correlated with autism. Although the etiology of ASD is complicated and has not been completely clarified, in our study, the risk factors of this spectrum were evaluated with data and contributed to the elucidation of the etiopathogenesis. Autism has no cure and is a lifelong disease. We recommend the response to treatment increases with the knowledge of preventable risk factors and early diagnosis. We recommend the screening of all children with a risk factor.
Anahtar Kelimeler: autism, prenatal risk factors, perinatal risk factors